The washing process of jeans includes general washing, desizing, stone washing, sand washing, chemical washing, rinsing, and destruction washing. Below is the introduction of common washing process.
1. General washing
Ordinary washing is ordinary washing, but the washing that we are familiar with is changed to mechanized. Its water temperature is about 30-45°C. Add a certain amount of detergent. After about 15 minutes of ordinary washing, add a softener to clean water. That is to say, the fabric is softer, more comfortable, and visually more natural and cleaner. Generally, depending on the length of the washing time and the amount of chemicals used, denim washing is usually about 10 minutes.
Enzyme washing (ENZYME WASH), denim in the weaving process, in order to strengthen the tension, the surface will be tied with a layer of pulp. Enzyme is a cellulase, which can degrade the fiber structure at a certain pH value and temperature, so that the cloth surface can be faded more gently (about 10-15% of the color is washed away), and the hair will be depilated (produced ” “Peach skin” effect), and get a long-lasting soft effect. But you can’t make the color very light. To make light-colored denim, you need to rinse it. Enzyme washing can be used with stone, usually called ENZYME STONE WASH.
3. Stone washing
Stone washing (STONE WASH) In order to make denim garments have a texture and rough effect, stone washing is done, that is, adding a certain size of pumice to the washing water. The pumice is divided into Indonesian yellowstone and Turkish white stone. The washing machine makes the pumice and the clothes polish. The water level in the sanding tank is carried out at a low water level where the clothes are completely soaked, so that the pumice stone can be in good contact with the clothes. General washing or rinsing can be carried out before stone grinding, or after stone grinding. According to the different requirements of customers, yellowstone, white stone, AAA stone, artificial stone, rubber ball, etc. can be used for washing to achieve different washing effects, and the clothes may be slightly to severely damaged.
4. SAND WASH
For sand washing, some alkaline and oxidizing additives are used to make the clothes have a certain fading effect and stale feeling after washing. If it is matched with stone grinding, the surface of the cloth will produce a layer of soft frosty white fluff after washing, and then add some softeners. It can make the fabric soft and soft after washing, thereby improving the comfort of wearing.
(1) Sand washing agent
①Pulsing agent: According to the type of fiber, the structure and tightness of the fabric, the puffing conditions such as puffing agent, concentration, temperature and time can be selected. When washing pure cotton clothes, alkaline puffing agents such as soda ash can be used for puffing treatment.
②Sand lotion: After the clothes are puffed, the fibers are loosened, and then rubbed with the help of special sand washing, so that the loose surface fibers produce plump and soft hairs. If you want to make the suede plump, you must choose different shapes and different hardness sands. Powder, such as rhombic sand (to make loose fibers produce fluff), polygonal sand (to make the fluff stand up), and round sand (to make the fluff plump).
③Softener: A softener used for sand washing. It is required to be soft and waxy, so that the fabric can gain weight and the drape should be significantly improved. Therefore, this kind of softener needs to have long carbon chain and cationic properties, which can be adsorbed on the fabric to achieve the purpose of weight gain.
(2) Sand washing equipment
Generally used in industrial washing machine for puffing, sand washing and softening treatment, dewatering with centrifugal pump dehydrator, and drying drum dryer used in knitting factory to dry goose down.
(3) Sand washing process
Cotton clothing can determine the type, amount, temperature and time of the bulking agent according to the organizational structure, warp and weft density, yarn count, and twist strength, as well as the amount of sand washing powder and softener, and the processing temperature and time. Generally speaking, The sand washing effect of the selected yarn fabric is better than the thread fabric, the coarse yarn is better than the high count yarn, the low twist is better than the high twist, and the floating length is better than the short floating product.
5. CHEMICAL WASH
Chemical washing is mainly achieved by using strong alkali additives (NaOH, Na2SiO3, etc.) to achieve the purpose of fading. After washing, the clothes will have a more obvious sense of oldness. Adding softeners will give the clothes a soft and plump effect. If stone is added to the chemical washing, it is called CHEMICAL STONE WASH, which can enhance the fading and abrasion effect, so that the clothes have a strong sense of worn-out. The fossil washing combines the chemical washing and stone washing effects. After washing, it can achieve a kind of distress and fluffing effect.
6. BLEACH WASH
In order to make the clothes have a white or bright appearance and a soft feel, the clothes need to be rinsed, that is, after ordinary washing with clean water, they are heated to 60°C, and an appropriate amount of bleaching agent (bleaching agent) is added according to the depth of the bleaching color. , Make the color to the board consistent within 7-10 minutes. During operation, the direction of adding bleaching agent should be consistent with the direction of rotation of the rotating cylinder, so as to prevent the bleaching agent from falling directly on the clothes because it cannot be diluted with water as soon as possible, resulting in partial bleaching. Before bleaching, the water level in the tank should be slightly higher so that the bleaching water can be diluted.
7. DESTROY WASH
After the garment is polished with pumice stone and treated with additives, some parts (bone position, collar angle, etc.) will be damaged to a certain extent, and the clothes will have a more obvious worn-out effect after washing.
Snow wash (SNOW WASH) soak the dry pumice with potassium permanganate solution, and then directly polish it with the clothes in a special rotating cylinder, and polish the clothes with the pumice stone, so that the potassium permanganate will oxidize the friction points and make the cloth surface It fades irregularly, forming white spots resembling snowflakes. The general process of snowflake washing is as follows: Pumice soaked in potassium permanganate-pumice and clothes dry grinding-snowflake effect on the board-take out the clothes in the washing tank with water to wash off the stone dust on the clothes-oxalic acid neutralization ——Washing——Apply softener.